Clinical Glossary

Understand medical terminology, quickly and easily

Use this glossary of clinical terms to help you better understand medical terminology and take an active role in your health.

Download this glossary (PDF)
    • Advanced prostate cancer

      Prostate cancer that is unlikely to be cured with treatment.

    • Androgen

      A group of sex hormones, primarily testosterone, that play a role in the reproductive system, help maintain sexual desire and function, and more.

    • Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)

      ADT reduces the amount of testosterone the body makes.

    • Androgen receptor inhibitor

      Androgen receptor inhibitors (also called antiandrogens or androgen receptor antagonists) are a class of drugs that are used to help keep prostate cancer cells from growing. They act by inhibiting the effects of androgen hormones, such as testosterone. Learn more about how XTANDI works.

    • Biopsy

      The only test that can confirm prostate cancer, this procedure involves removing cells or a small piece of tissue from your body and testing it for cancerous cells.

    • Bone scan

      A procedure to check for abnormal areas or damage in the bones.

    • Castration-sensitive prostate cancer (CSPC)

      Also called “hormone-sensitive prostate cancer,” this type of prostate cancer responds to hormone therapy or surgical treatment to lower testosterone.

    • Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)

      Also called “hormone-resistant prostate cancer,” this type of prostate cancer no longer responds to hormone therapy or surgical treatment to lower testosterone.

    • Computed tomography (CT) scan

      A procedure that uses a computer linked to an X-ray machine to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. The pictures are taken from different angles and are used to create three-dimensional (3-D) views of tissues and organs.

    • De novo cancer

      A term that describes the first occurrence of cancer in the body.

    • Gleason score

      A grading system used by healthcare providers to assess a prostate cancer's aggressiveness. It is based on how cells from the tumor look under a microscope—more aggressive tumor cells look less like normal tissue. The higher the Gleason score, the more aggressive your cancer may be. Doctors use the Gleason score to help choose the most appropriate treatments.

    • Hormone

      One of many substances made by glands in the body. Hormones circulate in the bloodstream and control the actions of certain cells or organs.

    • Imaging

      A scan that helps doctors monitor a disease or decide on treatment. Common imaging scans used for cancer include MRI, PSMA PET, and PET/CT scans.

    • Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) therapy

      A form of ADT, LHRH agonists prevent the release of LHRH, whereas LHRH antagonists block the pituitary gland from making LHRH. Lack of LHRH causes the testicles to stop making testosterone.

    • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan

      A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to show the difference between normal and diseased tissue; especially useful for imaging the brain, spine, bones, joints, and soft tissues.

    • Median

      A statistical term meaning the middle value in a set of numbers.

    • Metastatic

      A term describing cancer that has spread from the place where it started to other places in the body, such as nearby or distant bones, tissues, or other organs.

    • Novel hormone therapy (NHT)

      NHTs are a type of hormone therapy used to treat advanced prostate cancer. They work by blocking androgens from connecting to androgen receptors in the body, slowing cancer cell growth. NHTs work differently than ADT (androgen deprivation therapy) but are commonly used in combination with an ADT.

    • Overall survival

      The length of time a patient is alive after the start of treatment.

    • Progression

      The course of a disease as it gets worse or spreads in the body.

    • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

      A protein made inside the prostate. Its job is to help semen transport sperm. An unusually high amount of PSA in the blood may be a sign of prostate cancer.

    • Testosterone

      A hormone made in the testes, required for development of male sex characteristics, such as muscle growth and facial hair.

    • Tumor

      An abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells grow or divide more than they should or live longer than they should. Tumors can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

    Back to top

    Learn more about XTANDI

    Patient resources

    Helpful XTANDI resources for patients and caregivers

    Real people, real stories

    Hear firsthand from men who are taking XTANDI

    Sign up for support emails and resources

    We’re here for you with tools, tips, information, and support